James Benjamin Blish (23 May 1921 – 30 Jul 1975) was an American science fiction and fantasy writer. He is most well known for his Cities in Flight novels, and his series of Star Trek novelizations written with his wife, J. A. Lawrence. He is credited with creating the term gas giant to refer to large planetary bodies. Blish was a member of the Futurians. His first published stories appeared in Super Science Stories and Amazing Stories. Blish wrote literary criticism of science fiction using the pen-name William Atheling, Jr. His other pen names include: Donald Laverty, John MacDougal, and Arthur Lloyd Merlyn.